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Glaciers: an endangered wonder. Study of the retreat of glaciers in Europe.
Anna Olivé Abelló
This paper uses an extensive photographic collection accumulated over many years by a family of glacier enthusiasts to measure the retreat of glaciers. The main objectives of this work are to show the regression of glaciers and to assess the current rate this of retreat, to make comparisons and to suggest predictions. A total of 13 glaciers has been analyzed, 8 in the Alps and 5 in Norway. The retreat of glaciers has been measured with the help of Google Earth from 1850 up to the present. The graphical representation of the results allows us to observe and compare the retreat of the glaciers each, and see that from 2000 to the graph of the average velocity of retreat becomes exponentially. The analysis of this regression allows us to find the average acceleration of this retreat. The current speed of melting allows us to predict the disappearance of a large number of glaciers during the XXIst Century.
Hardware-software navigation devices for blind people
The work purpose - organization of the available environment for people with limited possibilities on sight.
Generally the system consists of two types of devices:
1. Individual set: – googles with the PCBs which included the main microprocessor unit, Flash memory (micro Sd), GPS receiver, 3-axis magnetometer, an ultrasonic locator, Real Time Clock (RTC), mini loudspeakers, back-up battery, 2 set of IR-sensors and 2-channel amplifier; - control box with six tactile buttons for menu management, a microphone with the amplifier and main 7.4v LiPo battery.
2. InfraRed Informers: - not limited quantity of devices for record, storages and cyclic transfer through IR-Channel of speech information messages about buildings, offices, vehicles on which IR-Informers is fixed. Inside is located: microprocessor, SerialFlash memory IC, voice record circuit and IR LEDs.
System work example - The owner of a building record an information message in IR-Informer, fixes it on an entrance door. Short speech is constantly transferred through IR LEDs. Blind with an individual set passing not far from a door, accepts signals from IR-Informer by means of IR-sensors. When the door is on the right, signals are accepted by the right IR sensor, if door at the left hand –left sensor. In a case, when the users face is turned to direction of a door both sensors work. According to level of the received signals after its passing through 2-channel amplifier, loudness of a sound changes for the right and left loudspeakers fixed near ears on details of googles. Thus, the blind person determines by a method of binaural property of human hearing the direction to a door and from the text of a voice message learns about its appointment.
For increase of independence of users the individual set is added with two more subsystems:
1. Special system of GPS signals processing: -is based on the GPS receiver, a digital compass and RTC; - allows to keep in own memory of an individual set geographical coordinates of objects in the form of speech labels; - at a label choice in point of the menu to inform on distance and the direction on the corresponding object; - for a case when the blind person lost orientation, “Where am I?” program function is written, at which choice the microprocessor finds three most nearest located labels in the memory list and reports about their distance and direction to; - for convenience of application serves the digital compass (3-axis magnetometer) by means of which the microprocessor transfers the directions message as "North", "South-East" etc. to "Right", «Rear-Left» etc., concerning turn of the head of the user; - speaking clock automatically correct a time at each successful connection with satellites of GPS system.
2. Ultrasonic locator: - consists of ultrasonic 40 kHz transmitter-receiver and PCB with the amplifier; - determines by means of the microprocessor existence and distance (by the direction of turn of the head) to possible obstacles in distance to 2.5m and informs voice messages or change of tone of a sound signal.
Conclusion: As a result of development it was created and tested the navigation complex allows to be guided independently in unfamiliar surrounding space to people with limited possibilities on sight by the organization of the available environment. For achievement of the target the method of consecutive approach step-by-step is used: GPS, IR-Informing, Ultrasonic location.
Honey bee's (Apis mellifera L.) foraging range based on panlynological analisis of the composition of its pollen loads
Minute bees - great ventures (Honey bee's (Apis mellifera L.) foraging range based on panlynological analisis of the composition of its pollen loads): My study of honey bees foraging range was based on a self made, innovative method. The proposed method uses simple, cheap and, imprimis, harmless tools. My method starts with the permisses, that:
- honey bees polinate flowers and take pollen from indicative plants
- bees form pollen loads, where the wanted pollen is located
- they always return home
We are able to take from bees their pollen loads (and then analyse them) I found a few unitary species, e.g. two sweet chestnuts (marrons), two manna ashes and three buckwheat fields. Once a week (during 16 weeks), I took pollen loads from pollen trap located in Langsroth‘s beehive. The collected material was stored properly, whereupon microscopic slides were compiled and then submitted for palynological analysis. It was a must to analyze 300 pollen grains every week, what eventually enabled me to:
- examine honey bees foraging range
- compose their „menu“ during sixteen weeks My method is:
- safe for bees
- relatively cheap and easy to do (there is no need to involve the whole research team)
- enables us to examine Apinae‘s (inter alia bumblebees and western honey bees) and Osmia rufa‘s foraging range
- futhermore, it enables beekeepers to locate their apiary properly and obtain the aimed apian products Let me draw your attention to these tiny creatures, older than mankind. They live in terrific, well-ordered communities and they are extremly salutary to us. I would like mankind to focus on requiting them, e.g. without devouring their populations by enviromental contamination or supermanuring plant fields.
How can protein networks help the design of drugs having less side effects?
The best drug targets against infectious agents and cancer are usually the central nodes of protein-protein interaction networks (interactomes). However, in other diseases influencing central proteins may cause severe adverse effects. In this study, I investigated how network-based methods can help the identification of drug targets having potentially few side-effects. Based on the perturbation analysis of the human interactome of 12.439 proteins and their 350.528 connections, which started from 3,926 drug targets with 99,423 known side effects, I developed a new, network-based screening method to select drug target candidates with potentially less side-effects. I found that the ideal drug targets are those proteins that propagate information either very quickly or very slowly in the human interactome.
How to create a supercondenser: the practical usage of the concept of the double electric layer
Characteristics of industrial samples of ionistors were investigated. Self-discharge curves, charging curves and discharge curves of voltage and current were constructed. Research of materials for separators, types of ionistor assembly, and also physical and chemical properties of electrolytes has been carried out. Dependence between the maximum outlet voltage of an ionistor and the energy of electrolyte activation used in an ionistor, and also, correlation between charging voltage and the greatest possible voltage of an ionistor was established. The experimental gelkind electrolyte with a high electrolysis voltage threshold, was created. Own samples were created and their properties were investigated, the possibility to create own ionistor using cheap and available materials with the parameters close to the industrial ones was shown.
Identification and Screening of lignin- degrading Fungi of Inscribed Bamboo Tablets of Wu Kingdom and the Application in Treatment of Papermaking Black Liquor
Abstract: The wastewater drained from the alkaline (soda process and sulfate digestion process) pulping process in paper industry contains a large amount of lignin with the color of dark brown so the water is called black liquor, which contains large amount of suspended solids, organic pollutants and toxic substances and they will cause serious pollution when directly discharged into the water. The author screened the efficient lignin-degrading fungi called LD-2 from bamboo soaking liquid which was seriously affected by bamboo plaque disease reserved in Changsha Bamboo Slips Museum, Hunan Province. The identification had shown that LD-2 belonged to Sphingobacterium, and it was named Sphingobacterium sp. LD-2. When the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 was 1g l-1and and pH=7, the degradation rate of lignin by LD-2 was 47.6%.
When LD-2 was applied in in treatment of papermaking black liquor, test showed that LD-2 could treat the black liquor in which the COD was 25000 mg l-1 in a high basicity, pH=10. And five days later from the experiment, the removal rate of COD would reach 48.9% with pure biological method. This research provides a new biological resource for the treatment of high concentration in alkaline conditions of papermaking black liquor.
Illumination of Cancer Cells by Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes
Ege Salman, Ecem Eker
In this study, cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was chosen as fluorescent probe for cancer cell imaging. CFP was noncovalently (adsorption) conjugated to acid-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The obtained f-MWCNT/CFP conjugates were then linked to folic acid via –NH3 ends of proteins. The application potential of the obtained bioconjugates was investigated using HeLa cell line and A549 cell line which were chosen as model cells. In vitro fluorescence microscope images show that these conjugates can be used as an efficient fluorescent probe for targeting and imaging of folic acid over expressed cancer cells.
Impregnation of hydroxyapatite with growth factors for the osteogenesis
Lisa Corti, Lucia Ronchetti, Mila Roncoroni
Damage to human bones caused, either by the surgical removal of tumours, or through serious trauma requires the bone structure to be reconstructed via osteogenesis. In our work we developed a process which permits the impregnation of synthetic porous materials or denatured sponge with BMP proteins without triggering immunoactivity, under conditions that ensure the sterility of a surgeon implantable product.
Improving Paralyzed Functional Independence using Brainwave Signals
Idan Dinovetsky, Ziv Boguslavsky, Bar Hickri
The target audience of our project is the population of paralyzed people all over their bodies whether able to speak or not. This population contingent caregiver basic life activities. Our system allows a paralyzed person to communicate with his environment and it is based on BCI sensor (sensor which receives data of electrical signals of brain activity) placed on the forehead. The sensor receives data of electrical signals from the frontal lobe,which is related to a human blinks. A communication protocol that we developed based on the bits zero and one obtained from the sensor (blink or do not blink). The user initiates a sequence of blinks translated into executablecommands such as computerized speech, sending mail, text message or TV control. In an economically aspect, our system is cheap. The materials costs are only 150$ compare to known systems which costs in the 5000$ area for example The Wadsworth Center Brain-Computer Interface System.
Innovative an inexpensive, riskless and proper device that help deaf people to communicate with normals through visualizing the sound
Being in the 21st century with no major solution for more than 360 million people who are deaf is a problem.Even with the cochlear implants being the most successful aid argued, the expensive cost, danger and side effects of the implanting surgery still a barrier for most of them to take it as hope.My project design aim to provide convenient mean of communication to deaf people,it will not only help them to interact with voices and sounds,but it also will be engaged with information window to help them to interact and take decision based on a knowledge base . DAG would simply recognise the voices and sounds,and convert them into visual text and meaningful signs on the surface of the glasses through HUD. The voice recognition will be carried through directed integrated microphones and give the indication from where the sounds are coming from.The micro-controller will processes the signals from the microphones to define the sound source and the spot of interest to the user.Afterwards if sound is detected,visual signs would be displayed on the glasses,moreover smooth vibrations would be activated in case of alarm sounds detection.However if voice is detected,the microprocessor would handle the recognition of the different spoken languages and display the translated text accordingly.The software architecture would be an embedded Linux OS that will handle the application.The application will provide a neat and simple graphical interface,and the recognised speech will be displayed as a subtitle over the glasses,the application will also communicate with the trackpad wirelessly,to give the user the freedom to navigate through the software.With an intuitive keyboard,the user will type texts easily,and the typed text will be spoken accordingly.Statistically more than 360 million are deaf,which more than the population of the United Staes and the current hearing aids meets less than 10% of the global needs. would be the most inexpensive solution , with a cost less than 100$ which is 900 times less expensive than the cochlear implants. Moreover , no risks have to be taken ; DAG will be a turning solution for the hearing impaired population.